Reports said she was allegedly carrying cash and equipment - believed to include camouflage gear - for her husband fighting in war-torn Syria, although police would not confirm this.
"This arrest relates to Operation Duntulm that has a focus on foreign incursion offences," police said in a statement.
"She was charged with supporting incursions into a foreign state with the intention of engaging in hostile activities."
The 29-year-old, who was arrested on Saturday evening, was granted strict conditional bail and will appear in Sydney's Downing Centre Local Court on 2 June.
Officials have previously said more than 100 Australian citizens have travelled to fight alongside rebels in Syria with the government earlier this year expressing concern after several reported deaths.
Attorney General George Brandis has said he was worried about Australians returning radicalised and with new skills to commit extremist acts.
Under Australian law, it is an offence to travel to a foreign state - or assist someone to travel - with the intention to engage in hostile activity, or to train or be trained regarding hostile activities.